ADDIE is a standard procedure and method used by instructional designers and training creators. The model’s phases include analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation. Each of the phases represents a dynamic and flexible standard for developing efficient training and performance support instruments (McIver, Fitzsimmons, & Flanagan, 2015). In the present era, ADDIE is considered the most commonly implemented model for instructional design. The five phases interconnect and interrelate, and the model can be adapted to all environments.
Trainers and educators can apply the ADDIE model’s processes to create effective and efficient teaching designs for a vast variety of educational programs. The in-service training approach ought to be utilized to educate trainers about ADDIE’s principles: this approach enables return demonstrations and facilitation of in-person discussions, thereby emphasizing the trainer’s knowledge and skills, to prepare for successful application of ADDIE’s principles throughout the trainer’s professional life (Ngussa, 2014). The ADDIE model is currently used by many instructional designers to provide technology-based training and is effective for creating professionally developed, efficient and high-quality distance learning programs. Therefore, the ADDIE model is being increasingly used for corporate e-learnings and trainings, and is recognized as incredibly valuable for complex and large-scale teaching designs (Bamrara, 2018).
The phases of the ADDIE model include: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
1. Analysis Phase
During the analysis phase, the educator will identify the instructional problems, instructional objectives, learning environment, and existing skillsets of the learners (Dick & Carey, 2004). They will analyze the behavioral consequences, potential learning constraints, various delivery options, and most importantly, the online educational deliverables as well as the timeline for completion of the project (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007).
2. Design Phase
After the analysis phase, the instructional designers will design a planned approach to address performance-based challenges. The design phase consists of various steps regarding the learning objectives, evaluation tools, trainings and exercises, content development, examination of the subject matter, lesson schedules, and media selection (Shelton & Saltsman, 2006). It is important for the design phase to be specific and systematic, in order to develop a logical approach, and, to recognize and evaluate the developed planned policies and procedures to achieve the project goals. Instructional designers need to focus on specific components and implement them with meticulous attention to detail. During the design phase, the instructional designers will establish the visual and technical design strategies, apply the instructional policies according to the intended behavioral outcomes, create the user interface and experience, and apply the visual enhancements (Bamrara, 2018). The learning objectives of structural design are usually measured according to performance-based metrics.
3. Development Phase
During the development phase, the designers will develop and assemble the designed content assets (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007), while system analysts will collaborate and integrate different modes of technology. System testers will perform various procedures to identify errors and improve processes. The collected feedback can be used to review and revise the project according to requirements (Davis, 2013). After completing the development of the course material, the designers should conduct an imperative pilot test; this can be carried out by involving key stakeholders and rehearsing the course material. The feedback obtained from the pilot would also be beneficial to identify the weaknesses and further enhance the whole process before implementation (Davis, 2013).
4. Implementation Phase
The implementation phase entails the transformation of the plan into actions. The steps of the implementation phase include training the educators, arranging the learners, and organizing the environment for learning suitability (Morrison, Ross, & Kemp, 2007). Training the educators before the start of the course will help increase their understanding and awareness of the content and materials. It is imperative that the learners have access to the essential materials, tools, and knowledge, so that they may contribute more effectively to group discussions and activities. The learners should be familiar with the information presented in the course, in order to ensure expansion of knowledge and skillsets, learning, and growth. Organizing the learning environment helps to deliver a course that is free of challenges (Branch, 2010).
5. Evaluation Phase
The final phase of the ADDIE model comprises evaluation. The instructional designers should evaluate every step to ensure that the objectives are achieved by the instructional design and material. The two types of evaluation are formative evaluation and summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is the internal evaluation conducted at every stage of the ADDIE model to assess the team’s continued progress and to revise ongoing project processes. The summative evaluation occurs after the implementation phase. Summative evaluation provides a true understanding of the real value of the design, as the focus is on the outcome of the educational program. The summative evaluation includes tests developed to assess domain standard references items, the objectives of the educational program, and learners’ feedback. Summative evaluation is beneficial for obtaining an understanding of the learners’ outcomes and the effectiveness of design components, once the course is completed (Dick & Carey, 2004).
According to Welty, 2007; the Model's workflow consists of:
- Develop learning profiles
- Identify learning spaces and technological equipment
- Identify and reserch learning resources
- Determine delivery and assessment strategies
- Storyboard the design
- Plan and conduct tests using prototypes
- Recognize the network capacity
- Develop onling learning spaces
- Modify the technology options
- Decide whether to insource or outsource tasks
- Conduct the tests
- Confirm licensing, copyright, and accessibility
- Prepare educators to educate
- Provide tools to the learners
- Conduct delivery and assessment
- Collect and assess the data
- Share the results with stakeholders
The advantages of learning the ADDIE model include:
- Learning the ADDIE model will help the trainers and instructional designers provide more effective quality designs, clearly defined learning objectives, structured and coherent content, measured and organized workload for educators and students, incorporated visualizations and media, and appropriate student activities and assessments that are linked to the targeted learning outcomes (Allen & Sites, 2012).
- The ADDIE model will enable identification of the proper best practice design principles, followed by implementation of the principles on a systematic basis. ADDIE is a very effective tool that facilitates design, development, and growth of a large number of courses at a high standard (Dick & Carey, 2004).
- The ADDIE model integrates evaluation of learners’ needs, design, and development of training materials. In addition, and most significantly, an evaluation of the training program can be carried out by using processes that generate measurable and specific outcomes (Branch, 2010).
- In highly technical industries, ADDIE contributes to the organization and implementation of training designs at the best location for engaging the most learners (Bamrara, 2018).
- The ADDIE model can be flexibly adapted while completing the project requirements. In order to use the model more flexibly, it is critical to implement the following strategies: thinking non-linearly by considering different phases that can be implemented in parallel; best utilizing every outcome; and maintaining flexibility with the development of your innovative learning product. Flexibility of the ADDIE model encourages evaluation at every step and promotes evaluation and redesign at every stage. As a result, the designers will be able to ensure that processes become more adaptable to different changes and challenges (Morrison, Ross & Kemp, 2007).
- The instructional design model of ADDIE provides designers with the structure and flexibility to achieve their analyzed objectives and motivations for the development and implementation of the curriculum. Therefore, the organizers will be able to provide the most effective and best learner-centered experience. The designers must thoroughly understand, from a neutral and unbiased perspective, the most suitable situation required to provide the training (Allen & Sites, 2012).
Our discussion about the ADDIE model has revealed the importance of why instructional designers nowadays are recommended to utilize this method. Instructional designers should obtain a comprehensive insight about the ADDIE model from different perspectives, in order to develop more effective training materials, in accordance with the requirements and expectations of the learners. For this purpose, our online course in ADDIE Instructional from the International Society for Education Technology would help the instructional designers develop foundational knowledge and skills to design and implement effective instructions. The offered course will educate learners about the ADDIE model and provide trainers with the necessary instructional design skills to develop successful training events. Participants will obtain an overview about ADDIE’s instructional design features and the five phases: analysis, design, development, implementation and instructional evaluation. The course is divided into five modules to provide a comprehensive understanding pf the components of the ADDIE system. Instructional designers, students, researchers and educators are invited and encouraged to partake in this course to achieve their personal career development goals.
- Allen, M., & Sites, R. (2012). Leaving ADDIE for SAM: An agile model for developing the best learning experiences. American Society for Training & Development.
- Branch, R. (2010). Instructional design: the ADDIE approach. Boston, MA: Springer US.
- Bamrara, A. (2018). Applying Addie model to evaluate faculty development program. Issues and Ideas in Education, 6(1), 11-28. doi:10.15415/iie.2018.61001
- Davis, A. (2013). Using instructional design principles to develop effective information literacy instruction: The ADDIE model. College & Research Libraries News, 74(4), 205-207. doi:10.5860/crln.74.4.8934
- Dick, W., & Carey, L. (2004). The systematic design of instruction (6th ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
- Morrison, G., Ross, S., & Kemp, J. (2007). Designing Effective Instruction (5th ed.). Hoboken: John Wiley.
- McIver, D., Fitzsimmons, S., & Flanagan, D. (2015). Instructional design as knowledge management. Journal Of Management Education, 40(1), 47-75. doi:10.1177/1052562915587583
- Ngussa, B. (2014). Application of ADDIE model of instruction in teaching-learning transaction among teachers of Mara Conference Adventist Secondary Schools, Tanzania. Journal Of Education And Practice, 5(25).
- Shelton, K., & Saltsman, G. (2006). Using the Addie model for teaching online. International Journal of Information And Communication Technology Education, 2(3), 14-26. doi: 10.4018/jicte.2006070102
- Welty, G. (2007). The ‘design’ phase of the ADDIE model. Journal of GXP Compliance, 11(4), 40-48.